What is Photographic Filter
In Photography and Videography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted into the optical path.
The filter can be of a square or oblong shape and mounted in a holder accessory, or, more commonly, a glass or plastic disk in a metal or plastic ring frame, which can be screwed into the front of or clipped onto the camera lens.
Filters modify the images recorded. Sometimes they are used to make only subtle changes to images; other times the image would simply not be possible without them. In monochrome photography colored filters affect the relative brightness of different colours; red lipstick may be rendered as anything from almost white to almost black with different filters.
Others change the colour balance of images, so that photographs under incandescent lighting show colours as they are perceived, rather than with a reddish tinge. There are filters that distort the image in a desired way, diffusing an otherwise sharp image, adding a starry effect, etc.
Many filters absorb part of the light available, necessitating longer exposure. As the filter is in the optical path, any imperfections,non-flat or non-parallel surfaces, reflections, scratches, dirt, affect the image.
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Uses of filters in Photography
Filters in photography can be classified according to their use:
- Clear and ultraviolet
- Color correction
- Color conversion (or light balance)
- Color separation, also called color subtraction
- Contrast enhancement
- Neutral density, including the graduated neutral density filter and solar filter
- Special effects of various kinds, including
- Graduated color, called color grads
- Cross screen and star diffractors
- Diffusion and contrast reduction
- Close-up or macro diopters, and split diopters or split focus
Filter Sizes and Mountings
- Threaded round filters
- Square filters
- Rectangular filters
- Bayonet round filters
- Series filters